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History

 

History

Significant events in the modern history of the Sudan

1820: Introduction of the Ottoman-Egyptian Administration.  
1839: The South of the Sudan it is conquered by the Ottoman-Egyptians. Trading is introduced, particularly the slave trade (which was not formally abolished in Egypt and Sudan until 1860).  
1857: Arrival in Sudan of the Catholic Missionaries of the Institute Mace. One of the five missionaries is Daniele Comboni, to become father of the modern Catholicism in Sudan.
1885 (January): Conquest of Khartoum and overthrow of the Ottoman-Egyptian Administration by the Mahdi, and the establishment of the Mahdi’s State. The Mahdi’s forces have sufficient arms to hold the South but not enough to subjugate it, which entails a continuous war.  
1898: The Battle of Omdurman. Kitchener defeats the Khalifa, the Mahdi’s successor, and his Dervishes. The reoccupation of Sudan begins.  
1899 (19 January): The Anglo-Egyptian Protectorate starts. Slavery is abolished.  
1903: The Anglo-Egyptian administration assigns an evangelist territory to each missionary group asking to operate in the country. The Northern Sudan remains under Muslim influence.  
1930: The British introduce separatist policy for the South of the Sudan. The South was therefore separated from the North to avoid its arabisation.  
1936: Anglo-Egyptian Treaty confirming the Protectorate Agreement of 1899.  
1943: Rival nationalist groups organised along the lines of political parties, the Umma party and the Ashiqqa' party (favouring Egypt) are born.  
1946: Southerner’s policy annulment as a result of Northern pressures.  
1947: Juba Conference which ushers the agreement between North and South on the National Unity principle and the South’s participation in the Legislative Assembly.  
1951: Farouk self-proclaims himself King of Egypt and Sudan.  
1952: Self-government status.  
1953: Protectorate’s end. Anglo-Egyptian Agreement on the right to self-determination and the improvement of the self-government phase. The South, having no political parties of its own, little political importance.15-25th November – Parliamentary elections.  
1954 (6th January): Al Azhari is elected First Minister. October - Committee for Sudanization nominations. 6 seats of 800 in the Administration are assigned to the South.  
1955: The Parliament approves a measure stipulating that Sudan must decide its future through a nationwide plebiscite. In December a resolution declaring Sudan’s independence is approved.  
1956: Start of Parliamentary rule. The Sudan becomes a member of the Arab League. New Prime Minister elected, Abdallah Khalil. The 12th November - Sudan joins the United Nations.  
1957: The proposal of a Constitution establishing Islam as the religion of the state and Arabic as the national language.  
1958: All the Southern Parliament members are discharged when the constituent Assembly refuses a federation proposal. Intensification of the war and military dictatorship takes power.  
1959: Egypt’s Agreement on the Nile waters.  
1964: Expulsion of all foreign missionaries from the Southern Sudan provinces. 21st October – a popular uprising, the October Revolution, leads to the establishment of a transitional government that monitors elections and the return of democracy.  
1969 (25 May): Military Coup d'état (May revolution) brings to power Ga’afer Mohamed Nimeiri’s dictatorship which begins in coalition with the Sudanese Communist Party.
1971 (19 July): Nimeiri becomes president.  
1972: Nimeiri ratifies the Addis Ababa Agreement between the government and the rebels through presidential decree. Regional self-government of the south becomes part of the Sudanese Constitution in 1973. After 17 years, the civil war comes to an end. An Executive Council for the South in nominated. October - Regional Assembly elections in the South; the first government is instituted, legally elected, headed by President of the South Abel Alier.
1978 (12th April): The National Reconciliation Agreement is concluded between the political opposition, the National Front, and the Sudanese government.
1979: Revolts and strikes erupt in Khartoum and in the larger cities. The demands are for the higher wages and lowering the cost of living. The students demand press freedom. Hassan el Turabi is nominated Attorney General.
1983: The civil war resumes. The southerners rebel against Nimeiri's decision to support Muslim Sharia Law which is still applied rigorously in the mostly Muslim areas.
1986 - 1989: Parliamentary system instated, Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi elected. 30th June, 1989 military coup d'état led by General Omar El-Beshir, who becomes the new President.
1995: The northern opposition groups join the ongoing hostilities between the Government and the SPLM.
1998: Scarcity and drought in southern Sudan claim many lives.
1999: Sudan becomes an exporting oil country. December, El-Beshir dissolves Parliament and declares a state of emergency with the intention to remove his Islamic rival Hassan al-Turabi.
2000 (December): New elections (boycotted from the opposition) confirm Beshir for another 5 years as President of the Sudanese Republic. The state of emergency is renewed upon it's expiry. The fighting continues between the governmental forces and the rebels, and bombing of targets in south Sudan is intensified.
2003: The international community finally takes notice of another ongoing conflict in Sudan: DARFUR. The conflict erupts when the two rebels movements formations - the Sudan Liberation Army and the Justice and Equality Movement - attacked the central Government military positions. Italy is now assisting the civil population and innocent victims of the conflict, by providing foodstuffs and aid shipments, and development Co-operation experts.
2005: After approximately 3 years of negotiations between the SPLM and the central Government of Khartoum, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement on the 9th January was signed by two parties, thus ending 20 years of fratricide war that has caused the death of millions of people.

The relations between Italy and Sudan officially date back to 7th January, 1956, but in fact began in March1955.
Here is quoted the recognition communication of the Sudan's independence from Italy:
''''''''''
The Italian Government has, on the 7th January 1956 acknowledged the new State of the Sudan, whose independence has been, as is known, decided by the Sudanese Parliament unanimously on the 19th December 1955, and subsequently recognised, on the 1st January 1956, by the two condominium states, Great Britain and  Egypt .The formal communication of the recognition of the new State of the Sudan on  Italy's part took place in  Khartoum on the 10th January 1956, through the local Italian Representative, who delivered the messages addressed from the President of the Republic to that of the Sovereign Council in His capacity as acting Head of State, and from the President of the Council to the  Sudanese Prime Minister.

The Secretary General  
Rossi Longhi
''''''''''

Ambassadors' of Italy in Sudan

  • Renzo Luigi Romanelli, diplomatic representative, 7 marzo 1955
  • Renzo Luigi Romanelli, chargé d'affaires, 1 gennaio 1956
  • Martino Mario Moreno, diplomatic representative and ministry plenipotentiary, 7 novembre 1956
  • Paolo Tallarigo di Zagarise e Sersale, special representative and ministry plenipotentiary, 1 febbraio 1958
  • Paolo Tallarigo di Zagarise e Sersale, ambassador, 30 june 1959
  • Giuseppe Puri Purini, ambassador, 9 july 1962
  • Mario Ungaro, ambassador, 24 april 1968
  • Carlo de Franchis, ambassador, 14 march 1971
  • Giulio Bilancioni, ambassador, 2 april 1973
  • Filippo Anfuso, ambassador, 15 october 1977
  • Francesco Lo Prinzi, ambassador, 20 february 1981
  • Gianfranco Farinelli, ambassador, 22 september 1988
  • Rosario Nicosia, ambassador, 16 october 1990
  • Maurizio Battaglini, ambassador, 21 october 1993
  • Claudio Pacifico, ambassador, 25 november 1997
  • Luigi Costa Sanseverino di Bisignano, ambassador, 6 october 2000
  • Enzo Angeloni, ambassador, 9 october 2003
  • Roberto Cantone, ambassador, 22 december 2007
  • Armando Barucco,ambassador, 1 november 2011
  • Fabrizio Lobasso, ambassador, 30 march 2015  

 

 

 

 

                                                                     Curiosity about Sudan


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